The National flag of Egypt (Egyptian Arabic: علم مصر, IPA: [ˈʕælæm ˈmɑsˤɾ]) is a tricolour consisting of the three equal horizontal red, white, and black bands of the Arab Liberation flag dating back to the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.
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The Egyptian flag bears Egypt’s national emblem, the Eagle of Saladin cantered in the white band.
The Free Officers who toppled King Farouk in the Revolution of 1952 assigned specific symbolism to each of the three bands of the Arab Liberation flag. The red band symbolises the period before the Revolution, a time characterized by the struggle against the monarchy, and the British occupation of the country. The white band symbolizes the bloodless nature of the Revolution itself. The black band symbolises the end of the oppression of the Egyptian people at the hands of the monarchy, and foreign imperialism.
Egypt’s use of the Arab Liberation flag inspired its adoption by a number of other Arab states. The same horizontal tricolour is used by Iraq, Syria, and Yemen (and formerly Libya), the only difference being the presence (or absence) of distinguishing national emblems in the white band.
The development of the modern Egyptian flag was determined first by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, under whom Egypt was united with Sudan, and later by the rise of Arab nationalism. Wikipedia